Echinacea, a native of North America, has become a popular planting plant more than 400 years after it was discovered by Indian tribes and used as a traditional herb. This purple flower is a favorite of gardeners and butterfly lovers. Similar to a Daisy, with a humped head and pink or purple petals growing on a solid stem away from the leaves.
Echinacea is an herb used for medicinal purposes. Medicine is made from the flowers, leaves and roots of echinacea, which was revered as a medicinal plant until the 1950s and the introduction of antibiotics. We also learned that the above-ground part of the plant is the most effective. Most people don’t realize that the chemicals contained in roots are very different from those in the upper part of the plant. If we analyze the roots of echinacea, we can find that they contain high concentrations of volatile oils, while the parts growing above the soil tend to contain more polysaccharides known to enhance immune function. In fact, many of Echinacea’s chemical constituents are powerful immune stimulators that can provide significant therapeutic value. Some you may be familiar with are essential oils, flavonoids, inulin, polysaccharides, echinacoside, ketoalkenes, alkylamides, cichoric acid and vitamin C. These main components are beneficial for human health. This article will discuss these components and how they are used.

Chicoric acid
Chicoric Acid (CA) is extracted from a variety of edible plants, including Echinacea purpurea. Chicoric acid is a natural preservative that is used in echinacea extraction to improve the effectiveness of the herb. This acid activates toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling, which leads to the release of inflammatory cytokines. In addition, this acid inhibits the formation of LPS, which is a type of bacterial toxin that can negatively affect human health.

It is known for its multiple biological functions, including antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects. In a recent study, researchers investigated CA’s effects on energy regulation pathways and underlying molecular mechanisms. This was done in two different animal models, including diabetic C57BL/6J mice and HepG2 cells.

Alkamides are chemical compounds found in several plants and are thought to have multiple benefits in medicine, food, and cosmetics. It’s important bioactive phytochemicals in Echinacea. These phytochemicals have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. They inhibit the production of PGE2 and inhibit the activity of macrophages. Although the precise mechanism of action remains unclear, the presence of alkamides in Echinacea extract may contribute to its anti-inflammatory activity.

The major alkylamide found in Echinacea is 50% bioavailable and is detected in human and experimental animal blood within minutes of consumption. This compound is rapidly distributed to lipophilic tissues and undergoes oxidation and metabolism in the body. The bioavailability of echinacea CADs is poor, owing to the stability of the compounds. Several studies have revealed their therapeutic effects in several diseases. These compounds have been shown to have immunomodulatory, antiviral, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. In addition to these, alkylamides have shown potential as anti-cancer agents.

Researchers have identified multiple constituents from echinacea, including Echinacoside. These chemicals have several health benefits, including the potential to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress. The echinacoside is known to help reduce inflammation, promote cell death and improve the function of lymphocytes. It is also effective in enhancing phagocytosis and activating IL-1 and TNF secretion in lymphocytes and macrophages. This action may contribute to its ability to boost the immune system. The plant has a number of medicinal benefits, but it is unclear whether it can help with stress. Studies have also shown that echinacea is useful in treating infections such as colds and flu. Echinacoside can help prevent upper respiratory tract infections and supports the respiratory system and is beneficial for the nervous system. In addition, it is a natural antihistamine.

Echinacea extract contains polysaccharides that have been shown to have an immunostimulatory effect. These polysaccharides are water-soluble and have lipoidal molecular structures. The polysaccharides that are most active in immunological assays are cichoric acid, 4-O-methylglucuronoarabinoxylan, and neutral fucogalactoxyloglucan.
The active components in echinacea have been shown to stimulate immune function, reduce inflammation, and promote the secretion of lymphocytes and other immune cells. Echinacea may help to cure various conditions, including urinary tract infections, athlete’s foot, sinusitis, and other inflammatory diseases. Studies have also shown that echinacea extract may inhibit colon tumors, especially when used in combination with cichoric acid. Furthermore, it can inhibit the recurrence of cold sores caused by herpes simplex virus.

Echinacea extracts also contain various bioactive compounds, including caffeic acid, polysaccharides, and glycoproteins. Some species of the plant also contain caffeine, which could be used as a reliable indicator of the authenticity of plant extracts. Interestingly, in Germany, where the government regulates edible herbs, the above-ground echinacea is actually approved as a natural remedy for urinary tract infections, upper respiratory tract infections, colds, and slow wound healing. So you can see why echinacea products are used to treat viral illnesses such as the common cold and flu, and echinacea extract in particular is a favorite recommendation of integrative, homeopathic, and naturopathic physicians.

Ye Tao